Daisy Roulland-Dussoix was a Swiss microbial geneticist. Werner Arber was born in Gränichen, Switzerland, on June 3, 1929. Famous Foreign Biologists and their Significant Contributions. In 1964 Bill Wood laid out a solid basis for the genetics of the restiction and modification systems EcoK and EcoB. Arber started to work with Joe Bertani on a ‘bacteriophage’ of the E. Coli virus which Bertani had isolated a few years earlier. These can be grouped into three strategies with different qualities with regard to their contributions to biological evolution. He was also inspired by the lectures given by Jean Weigle who had been a professor of experimental physics at the ‘University of Geneva’. This may be the reason why I received offers to spend additional postdoctoral time in several excellent laboratories. He discovered restriction enzymes. These studies culminated in the final proof that modification in E. coli B and K is brought about by nucleotide methylation. Additional contributions to this goal come from contacts with other nearby University Institutes as well as with the private research Institutions in the city. Contributions, and controversy over recognition of Dussoix's contribution towards Werner Arber Nobel Prize Dussoix-Roulland was a member of the research groups of two future Nobel Prizewinners (Werner Arber (for discovery of restriction enzymes), and the group of Harold Varmus and J. Michael Bishop (for the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes). Prof. em. It might thus be justified to finish this curriculum vitae by its reproduction: When I come to the laboratory of my father, I usually see some plates lying on the tables. Prix Nobel/ Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. Several outreach organisations and activities have been developed to inspire generations and disseminate knowledge about the Nobel Prize. D student, and John Smith, working for various lengths of time with us, succeeded in careful in vivo and in vitro measurements on methylation to validate and extend the earlier conclusions. Werner Arber Werner Arber was born on June 3, 1929, in Granichen, Switzerland. Werner Arber (*1929) is a famous microbiologist and geneticist. by the Laureate. Their experiments also brought important conclusions with regard to the concept of the sites of recognition on the DNA for the restriction and modification enzymes. This laboratory was animated by Eduard Kellenberger and it had two prototype electron microscopes requiring much attention. His main research involved enzymes present in bacteria that have been infected by a virus and how the enzymes change the DNA of the virus to protect the bacteria. Tasked with a mission to manage Alfred Nobel's fortune and has ultimate responsibility for fulfilling the intentions of Nobel's will. He next joined the gymnasium at the ‘Kantonsschule Aarau’ from where he received a B-type maturity in 1949. Learn more about Arber’s life and work. WERNER ARBER Summary Applications of scientific knowledge often refer to technological uses, but their impact on our world view can also be of great importance. Werner Arber (2014) ... classify these mechanisms into three natural strategies of genetic variation according to specific qualities of their contributions to biological evolution: local DNA sequence changes, intragenomic rearrangements of DNA segments, and the acquisition of a segment of foreign DNA by horizontal gene transfer. His work was centered mainly on the protective nature of some of the enzymes in the bacteria that prevent the growth of the ‘bacteriophages’. In response to their interest and understanding for my scientific activities, I have tried to give them my personal affection needed for a harmonious life. He joined the ‘University of Basel’ in 1971 and worked there as a professor of microbiology up to 1996. Werner Arber started this field of research in Geneva during the 1960’s. This was the end of my career as an electron microscopist and in chosing genetic and physiological approaches I became a molecular geneticist. . Phage P1 rapidly had become a very welcome tool of bacterial geneticists, since it gives general transduction, i.e. Werner Arber (1929-). Since these investigators had encountered defective lysogenic strains among their transductants, we felt that such strains should be included in the collection of lambda prophage mutants under study in our laboratory. The first step to accomplish this was easy thanks to a hint received from Esther Lederberg to look for cotransduction of the Ma1+ and lambdaS characters. Read more >> William Smith (1769-1839). During the last part of his studies he first became interested in fundamental research while trying to isolate an isomer and study its characteristics. He used his Nobel Prize money to invite his friends for this walk. My research interests focus on mechanisms to promote and to inhibit the exchange of genetic information between microorganisms: DNA restriction and modification systems; genetic recombination mechanisms, including transposition and site-specific inversion and their relevance for genetic rearrangements; and spontaneous mutagenesis and microbial evolution. Along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. In 1981 he became a member of the ‘World Knowledge Dialogue Scientific Board’ and also a member of the ‘Pontifical Academy of Sciences’. He had initially started out as an assistant in a biophysics laboratory who was required to maintain electron microscopes in proper working condition. Twelve laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2020, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind. For the last several years he has been involved in the study of ‘transposons’ and ‘insertion elements’ and their activities in providing the driving force required for the evolution of micro-organisms. He received the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his contribution to the field of recombinant DNA technology. On the recommendation of my professor in experimental physics, Paul Scherrer, I took an assistantship for electron microscopy at the Biophysics Laboratory at the University of Geneva in November 1953. I am fortunate to have found a continued support and steady encouragement by my family, in particular by my parents, and, since we became married in 1966, by my wife Antonia. This phenomenon became the topic of Daisy Dussoix’s doctoral thesis, who very carefully not only studied the DNA degradation of phage that was not properly modified, but who also tried to detect parallels between the fate of unmodified DNA in restrictive conditions and of irradiated DNA in normal host cells. Otherwise I might not have felt justified to engage in this work because of its lack of direct relevance to radiation research. Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. However, I was not satisfied to know how to overcome this barrier. The opportunity made Arber give up his job involving electron microscopy and change over to research in genetics which became a passion with him over the years. https://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/werner-arber-7428.php, Famous Role Models You Would Like To Meet. Not only did I always enjoy a continued contact with the students, but I also considered teaching as a welcome obligation to keep my scientific interests wide. This might have been related to a more general lack of public interest for this field, which was perhaps due to the economic structure of the city of Geneva and its environments. Their work would lead to the development of recombinant DNA technology. A curriculum vitae would be incomplete without reference to my private life. Werner Arber was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978. This view is here exemplified with recent developments in … Werner Arber. (Dan Nathans passed away in 1999.) The first is scientific and tends as just stated to better understand what nature does in its nonhomologous genetic exchange. Our two daughters Silvia and Caroline were born in 1968 and in 1974, respectively. Hamilton O. Smith, American microbiologist who shared, with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans, the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of a new class of restriction enzymes that recognize specific sequences of nucleotides in a molecule of DNA … After explaining her in simple terms the basic concepts of the mechanisms of restriction enzymes, she, after some reflection, reexpressed this message in her own terms by a tale, which in the meantime has found wide diffusion around the world. ... Werner Arber. It soon also became obvious that restriction and modification were properties of the bacterial strains and acted not only on infecting bacteriophage DNA, but also on cellular DNA as manifested in conjugation experiments. In 1953, he took an assistant-ship for electron microscopy at the Biophysical Laboratory at the University of Geneva. While doing this job he grew familiar with the fundamental aspects of genetics and ‘bacteriophage physiology’ and became interested in a totally new field of research on ‘bacteriophage’. Along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. Werner Arber was born in Gränichen, Switzerland, on June 3, 1929. He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulence, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles. ... Werner Arber. Discover Your Abilities and Aspirations! Before returning to Geneva at the beginning of 1960, he spent a few weeks working at the ‘Gunther Stent’ laboratory in Berkeley, the ‘Joshua Lederberg’ laboratory in Stanford and the ‘Salvador Luria’ laboratory at the ‘Massachusetts Institute of Technology’ in Cambridge. If a foreign king invades a bacterium, this servant can cut him in small fragments, but he does not do any harm to his own king. Read more >> Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). In November 1953 he took up the job of an assistant for electron microscopy at the ‘Biophysics Laboratory’ at the ‘University of Geneva’. This work would not have been possible without a very fruitful help by a large number of collaborators in my own laboratory and of colleagues working on related topics in their own laboratories. He became one of the first few people who started work at the ‘Biozentrum’ which had been recently constructed to house the different departments of microbiology, biophysics, biochemistry, cell biology, pharmacology and structural biology. In 1965 he was promoted to the post of ‘Extraordinary Professor for Molecular Genetics’ by the ‘University of Geneva’. When Werner Arber’s daughter Silvia heard of his discovery after he got the Nobel Prize she made a story out of the discovery which received wide publicity. On the other hand, I had remained in close contact with Eduard Kellenberger, and he urged me to come back to Geneva in order to lead an investigation on radiation effects on microorganisms. Biological evolution … Famous Foreign Biologists and their Significant Contributions. Another significant contribution to the process of humulin production was by Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith, and Daniel Nathans in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as they were responsible for discovering the restriction enzymes. He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978 for his discovery of restriction endonucleases which he shared with Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith . Werner Arber Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50-70, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland By comparing strategies of genetic alterations introduced in genetic engineering with spontaneously occurring genetic variation, we have come to conclude that both processes depend on several distinct and specific molecular mechanisms. Within about one year of study, it had become clear that strain-specific restriction and modification directly affected the DNA, without however causing mutations. University of Southern California, private coeducational institution of higher education in Los Angeles, California. Our postdoctoral workers Katsutoshi Mise, Shigeru Iida and Jürg Meyer brought important contributions to the understanding of these phenomena, mainly by the use of the bacteriophage P1 genome as a natural vector of transposable elements. Norman Borlaug, Arthur Kornberg, Werner Arber, Phillip Sharp, Günter Blobel, Lee Hartwell and Roger Kornberg. NobelPrize.org. I was extremely lucky to receive in my laboratory in the basement of the Physics Institute of the University of Geneva a number of first class graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and senior scientists. These colonies remind me of a city with many inhabitants. The king is like a book, in which everything is noted on the work to be done by the servants. For us human beings these instructions of the king are a mystery. He studied at the public schools in Granichen until he was 16. It is in the last year of this study that I made my first contacts with fundamental research, when working on the isolation and characterisation of a new isomer of Cl34, with a halflife of 1.5 seconds. Weigle had become a biologist doing research on ‘bacteriophage lamda’ while studying at the ‘Department of Biology’ under the ‘California Institute of Technology, Pasadena’. After my Ph. I was lucky to benefit from such a support form 1965 to 1970. 95, 166- 172, 1976) who encountered such a new system in their work with Salmonella recombinants. She did her PhD with Swiss scientist Werner Arber and in the process discovered restriction enzymes, proteins that can cut DNA at precise points. http://www.ae-info.org/attach/User/Arber_Werner/arber_werner01_small.jpga. He led Germany's efforts in World War II (1939-45) to develop an atomic bomb Werner Herzog This was when direct financial help was not available from the Swiss federal government. One of the first experiments after my return to Geneva was to render E. coli B and its radiation resistant strain B/r sensitive to phage lambda. Very rapidly, thanks to the stimulating help by Jean Weigle and Grete Kellenberger, this turned out to be extremely fruitful. American microbiologist. At a time before the Swiss Universities received direct financial help from the federal government, the Swiss National Science Foundation awarded “personal grants” to qualified researchers to allow them to guide projects of fundamental research at a Swiss University. These years were devoted to hard work to consolidate the preliminary data and the concepts resulting from them, and to extend the acquired notions, in particular with regard to the mechanisms of modification by nucleotide methylation, with regard to the genetic control of restriction and modification and with regard to the enzymology and molecular mechanisms of these reactions. Systems EcoK and EcoB form a closely related family as judged from genetic and functional studies. This concept had found its first experimental evidence during my two months’ visit in 1963 with Gunther Stent at the University of California in Berkeley. We could indeed show that lambda-mediated transduction is based on the formation of substitution mutants, which had replaced a part of the phage genes by genes from the bacterial chromosome. These plates contain colonies of bacteria. Since my coming to Basel, I devoted relatively little of my time to further studies on restriction and modification mechanisms. I was also anxious to know how the restriction of phage growth and the adaptation of lambda to the new host strain worked. In fact, one of the at first sight rather frustrating observation was that lysates of lambda-gal, which indeed could still cause the infected host cell to lyse as does wild type phage lambda, did not contain any structural components of lambda (phage particles, heads or tails) discernible in the electron microscope. The enzymes are servants who use scissors to cut a foreign king entering the kingdom into pieces to learn his secrets without harming their own king. And so was the DNA from unirradiated phage lambda used to measure adsorption and DNA injection into restrictive bacterial strains! Dr. Werner Arber is a pioneer in molecular biological research, investigating the structure and function of DNA and the interaction of genes and proteins. Werner Arber's 170 research works with 7,182 citations and 10,774 reads, including: Genetic engineering represents a safe approach for innovations improving nutritional contents of major food crops Werner Arber and Hamilton Smith both participated in the CSHL meeting. at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les As an illustration that my work has not always been easy and accompanied by success, I would like to refer to my long, fruitless and thus largely unpublished attempts to find experimental evidence for the diversification of restriction and modification systems in the course of evolution. Because of their independence on extended nucleotide homologies these forces bring about exchange of largely unrelated genetic materials. From 1965 to 1970 he was able to procure financial help from the ‘Swiss National Science Foundation’ to carry out fundamental research. This is why the first electron micrographs of phage lambda were made in Geneva. I consider our insights into the natural laws of biological evolution as one of my contributions … For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Laureates in each prize category. They have two daughters, Silvia and Caroline, who were born in 1968 and 1974 respectively. Mon. D. thesis on lambda-gal, although written in French, had been read, or, what is perhaps more essential, understood in its conclusions by many leading microbial geneticists. In 1953 he started his postgraduate work as an electron microscopist at the Biophysics Laboratory of the University of Geneva, mainly working with microorganisms. Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, and Hamilton Smith were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine/Physiology in 1978. In 1961 Arber and another geneticist, Daisy Dussoix, reported this phenomenon to the scientific community for the first time during the ‘First International Biophysics Congress’ which was held in Stockholm. Not that I have lost my interest in them. Early History of the Arber family. He studied Natural Sciences at the Swiss Polytechnical School in Zurich from 1949 to 1953. Educated in the Swiss public school system, he entered the Federal Institute of Technology in … At the end of the 1950’s, a special credit had been voted for by the Swiss Parliament for research in atomic energy, including radiation effects on living organisms. American microbiologist. For the last several years I have turned my principal interests to the intriguing activities of insertion elements and transposons, which by their actions on genetic rearrangements, seem to be the main driving forces of evolution in microorganisms. The project could bring insight into the nature of radiation damage to genetic material and its repair mechanisms, as well as of the stimulation of genetic recombination by radiation. In 1963 he spent one year at the ‘Department of Molecular Biology’ under the ‘University of California, Berkeley’ as a visiting ‘Miller Research Professor’. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978 was awarded jointly to Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics". I was born on June 3rd, 1929 in Gränichen in the Canton of Aargau, Switzerland, where I went to the public schools until the age of 16. In 1968 he received an offer of professorship at the ‘University of Basel’. Greek philosopher and early scientist. He received his PhD from the ‘University of Geneva’ in 1958 in which his thesis was on the characteristics of ‘bacteriophage’. Both of these kinds of applications have their cultural values. Apart from this, he was also awarded the National Medal of Science in 1983. This work earned me in the same year the Plantamour-Prévost prize of the University of Geneva. It is in the last year of this study that I made my first contacts with fundamental research, when working on the isolation and characterisation of a new isomer of Cl, The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978, Werner Arber - Nobel Lecture: Promotion and Limitation of Genetic Exchange. Educated in the Swiss public school system, he entered the Federal Institute of Technology in … In the summer of 1956, we learned about experiments made by Larry Morse and Esther and Joshua Lederberg on the lambda-mediated transduction (gene transfer from one bacterial strain to another by a bacteriophage serving as vector) of bacterial determinants for galactose fermentation. Several years later Urs Kühnlein, a Ph. Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. In the story the DNA has been named as the King ruling over a kingdom of subjects who are the bacteria. I then entered the gymnasium at the Kantonsschule Aarau where I got a B-type maturity in 1949. Werner Arber is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist who together with Daisy Dussoix helped discover and understand the mechanism of restriction enzymes, laying the foundation for their adoption as molecular scissors. She did her PhD with Swiss scientist Werner Arber and in the process discovered restriction enzymes, proteins that can cut DNA at precise points. Werner Arber received the ‘Plantamour-Prevost’ prize from the ‘University of Geneva’ in 1962. One could expect that mutations affecting the part of the enzymes responsible for recognition of the specificity site on the DNA might result in new members of the family, recognizing new specificity sites on DNA. Werner Arber is a Swiss microbiologist and a geneticist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the discovery of the process by which enzymes could be used to break down the DNA molecules into smaller fragments without losing … Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. He was also invited by Eduard Kellenberger to return to Geneva for research on the effect of radiation on micro-organisms. He then enrolled at the ‘Swiss Federal Institute of Technology’ located in Zurich under the ‘University of Geneva’ and studied physics and chemistry for his diploma in ‘Natural Sciences’ from 1949 to 1953. I started my new appointment at the University of Basel in October 1971 after having spent one year as a visiting Miller Research Professor at the Department of Molecular Biology of the University of California in Berkeley. The king has many servants. Luria had found that the viruses that infect bacteria known as ‘bacteriophages’ are themselves affected by hereditary mutations while inducing hereditary mutations in their hosts. During his job he was also required to prepare biological samples to be viewed under the microscope by other researchers. Werner Arber. Since this research largely makes use of restriction enzymes, although it in no way fully depends on them, I consider it a personal obligation to contribute to the best of my abilities to the solution of questions which arose in the scientific and public debate on this research in the last few years. Along with American researchers Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans, Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction endonucleases. This autobiography/biography was written While working as a research associate with Bertani, I received P1 at first hand which enabled me to study phage Pl-mediated transduction of monomeric and dimeric lambda prophage genomes as well as of the fertility plasmid F. In the meantime, my Ph. When Silvia learned that I had been honored by the Nobelprize she not only wanted to know what this is, but also why I was chosen as a Laureate. Werner Arber (Wikimedia Image) Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, Werner Arber was instrumental in discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. Werner Arber's 170 research works with 7,182 citations and 10,774 reads, including: Genetic engineering represents a safe approach for innovations improving nutritional contents of major food crops My research interests focus on mechanisms to promote and to inhibit the exchange of genetic information between microorganisms: DNA restriction and modification systems; genetic recombination mechanisms, including transposition and site-specific inversion and their relevance for genetic rearrangements; and spontaneous mutagenesis and microbial evolution. He discussed with them science and other matters in life. any particular region of the host chromosome gets at some low frequency wrapped into P1 phage particles if P1 multiplies in a cell, and this enables the geneticists to carry out linkage studies of bacterial genes. Werner Arber was born on June 3, 1929 in Granichen, in the Canton of Aargau in Switzerland. English: Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist. To cite this section Werner Arber (Wikimedia Image) Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, Werner Arber was instrumental in discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. However, the strains thus obtained still did not allow an efficient propagation of lambda. These are thick and short, almost like balls. It is virtually impossible to list them all in this context, but my warmest collective thanks go to all of them. In 1978, he won the Nobel price in medicines and physiology. Later, Stuart Linn, profiting from his fruitful contacts with Bob Yuan and Matt Meselson, who worked in the USA on the enzymology of EcoK restriction, set the basis for in vitro studies with EcoB restriction and modification activities. Clever people use the servant with the scissors to find out the secrets of the kings. 18 Jan 2021. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted D. student, and Dorothea Scandella, a postdoctoral fellow, explored two other mechanisms found in some E. coli strains or mutants and affecting more specifically than restriction and modification systems particular steps in the propagation of bacteriophage lambda. After having suffered a heart attack, he had left Geneva to become a researcher at the Department of Biology of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. He did many researches on the bacterial restrictions’ systems and movable genetic elements, the modification and restriction of the ribonucleic acid. This allowed me to turn my main interests back to other mechanisms affecting either positively or negatively the exchange of genetic material. Within a year of research he was able to establish the fact that DNA of both the ‘bacteriophage’ and the cell had been affected by modification and strain-specific restrictions. In each bacterium there is a king. Shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans for the discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. Look for popular awards and laureates in different fields, and discover the history of the Nobel Prize. It was already known that bacteria could break down viruses called phages. He helped to keep the two electron microscopes in good working condition and spent a lot of time helping in the preparation of biological specimens to be viewed with the microscopes. Shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans for the discovery of restriction endonucleases, which led to the development of recombinant DNA technology. He received an offer from the ‘University of Southern California’ in Los Angeles in the summer of 1958 after completing his PhD to work with Joe Bertani who had collaborated earlier with Jean Weigle in the research on ‘bacteriophages’. These findings were reported by myself and Daisy Dussoix for the first time to the scientific community during the First International Biophysics Congress held in Stockholm in the summer of 1961. D. exam in the summer of 1958 I had the chance to receive an offer to work at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles with Joe Bertani, a former collaborator of Jean Weigle. The second is rather political and it consists in actions to stimulate continued awareness of responsibility to work with a maximum of care in all scientific investigations, which should, however, be allowed to be done under optimal academic freedom.

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